HADITH AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF HADITH

اذهب الى الأسفل

HADITH AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF HADITH

مُساهمة من طرف عاشقة الأمل في الخميس سبتمبر 04, 2008 2:34 am

HADITH AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF HADITH

by
Ismail Lutfi Cakan, PhD


In religious terminology, the term hadith is used for "the words of the Prophet", and later came to be used for "his words, deeds and explanations". Moreover, the words and deeds of the Companions and the following generation -with even a reference to maqtu (sayings of the following generation) and mauquf (sayings of the Companions) - are also called hadith. In this sense, there are also scholars who use the word khabar (report) instead of hadith, and the term asar for the words and deeds of Companions and the following generation.

In much broader sense, hadith can be defined as follows:

"Everything attributed to Prophet Muhammad (or the Companions or following generation), such as words, deeds, explanations, or characteristics of his creation and character."

The word Sunnah literally means "path and behavior". Although to start with the term sunnah was used for "the deeds of the Prophet", and hadith for "the words of the Prophet", Sunnah has become a term that is used for all direct explanations by the Prophet through words or deeds and his indirect explanations by tacit approval of events he heard or witnessed. According to scholars of usul al-fiqh, this is the definition of Sunnah. However, hadith scholars use the words hadith and Sunnah interchangeably.



Cont...

عاشقة الأمل
مشرف

عدد الرسائل : 51
العمر : 31
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/07/2008

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: HADITH AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF HADITH

مُساهمة من طرف عاشقة الأمل في الخميس سبتمبر 04, 2008 2:37 am


COMPONENTS OF HADITH


A hadith is composed of two main parts that are quite different from each other: the sanad (chain of narrators) and the matn (text).



Sanad is the list of narrators - back to the Prophet (pbuh) - provided that one narrator transmits it from another and then to another. In a sense, this part is the chain of narrators. In fact, it is called the isnad, "the chain of narrators". Actually, the words sanad and isnad are used interchangeably now. Sanad is also known as tariq or wach.



The matn is "the main part of the hadith, the verbal part with which the sanad ends."




Cont...

عاشقة الأمل
مشرف

عدد الرسائل : 51
العمر : 31
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/07/2008

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: HADITH AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF HADITH

مُساهمة من طرف عاشقة الأمل في الخميس سبتمبر 04, 2008 2:41 am

CLASSIFICATIONS OF HADITH





I. According to acceptance or rejection


Maqbul (accepted)
Mardud (rejected)




II. According to the number of narrators

Mutawatir (consecutive)
Ahad (isolated)
Mashhur (famous)



III. According to the muntaha of the sanad (the reference of the hadith)

Qudsi (sacred)
Marfu’ (elevated)
Mauquf (stopped)
Maqtu’ (severed)



IV. According to soundness and judgment

Sahih (sound)
Hasan (good)
Da’if (weak)
a.Regarded weak because of a break in the sanad

b.Regarded weak, because of the disparaged character of the narrator




V. According to contradiction

Muhkam (perfect)
Mukhtalif (disputed)



Cont...





عاشقة الأمل
مشرف

عدد الرسائل : 51
العمر : 31
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/07/2008

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: HADITH AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF HADITH

مُساهمة من طرف عاشقة الأمل في الخميس سبتمبر 04, 2008 2:45 am

I. According to acceptance or rejection





Depending on acceptance or rejection, hadiths are classified into two groups: maqbul (accepted) or mardud (rejected).


A maqbul hadith is one which the reliability of the narrator is accepted. It is necessary to obey a maqbul hadith.


However, a mardud hadith is one which the reliability of the narrator is denied. It is not necessary to follow a mardud hadith. Hadiths which are unclear as to whether or not they should be followed are mardud hadiths.



Cont....



عاشقة الأمل
مشرف

عدد الرسائل : 51
العمر : 31
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/07/2008

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: HADITH AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF HADITH

مُساهمة من طرف عاشقة الأمل في الخميس سبتمبر 04, 2008 2:47 am

II. According to the Number of Narrators



Depending on the number of narrators, hadiths are classified into two general categories: mutawatir (consecutive) and ahad (single). Mashhur (famous) hadiths are also classified into the ahad group.


A mutawatir hadith is one that is reported by a large number of narrators about whom it is inconceivable that they would agree to tell a lie. This condition must be met throughout the chain, from the beginning to the end. Moreover, the hadith should be based on the senses, such as on something that was heard or seen. With these characteristics, a mutawatir hadith conveys certain knowledge and cannot be criticized.


A mutawatir hadith is called lafzan (verbally) mutawatir, if it is reported verbatim in each narration. It is widely accepted that this kind of hadith is quite rare.

The common meaning is called ma'nan (in meaning) mutawatir, if the hadith is reported by narrators who meet the tawatur requirements of different judgments with points in common. There are many hadiths of this kind.

An ahad hadith is one which fails to fulfill the requirement of mutawatir. Therefore, most hadiths are ahad hadiths, as they do not fulfill the requirements of tawatur. In this sense, almost all hadiths in our hadith books are of this kind.

There are also some hadiths that were ahad hadiths at the beginning but achieved tawatur status in following generations (the tabi'un - successors - or Atba' al-Tabi'in - persons belonging to the second generation after the Prophet). These hadiths are called mashhur hadiths. These hadiths must be reported by at least two narrators from each generation.



Cont...

عاشقة الأمل
مشرف

عدد الرسائل : 51
العمر : 31
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/07/2008

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: HADITH AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF HADITH

مُساهمة من طرف عاشقة الأمل في الخميس سبتمبر 04, 2008 2:50 am

III. According to the muntaha of the sanad (the reference of the hadith)




The muntaha of the sanad, namely the reference to which the hadith is attributed, can be different. Depending on this fact, different names are used for hadiths. If it is attributed to Allah, it is called qudsi. If it is attributed to the Prophet, it is called marfu'. If it is attributed to a companion, it is called mauquf. If it is attributed to a successor or someone after this generation, it is called maqtu'.


Provided that it is not an ayah, the hadith that is attributed and related to Allah by the Prophet, in which he says, "Allah says so and so", is called a qudsi hadith or divine hadith. The subject of these hadiths is usually concerned with the characteristics of Allah.


A marfu' hadith is one that is directly or indirectly attributed to the Prophet as a word, deed, explanation or ethical characteristic, whether it is sanad-i muttasil (continuous) or munqati'(broken). If the hadith is attributed explicitly to the Prophet, it is called sarahatan marfu'. It is called hukman marfu' if it gives information about such themes that cannot be based on personal views or believes of a Companion about previous prophets or events that will happen in the future or subjects that may bring thwaab (reward) or azaab (punishment) if committed.


A mauquf hadith is one about - muttasil (continuous) or munqati' (broken) - words, deeds and explanations of Companions. Its sanad cannot be traced to the Prophet, but to a Companion. Words, deeds and explanations attributed to the following generation are called maqtu hadith. The Atba' al-Tabi'in are also accepted as the following generation.




Cont...

عاشقة الأمل
مشرف

عدد الرسائل : 51
العمر : 31
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/07/2008

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: HADITH AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF HADITH

مُساهمة من طرف عاشقة الأمل في الخميس سبتمبر 04, 2008 2:52 am

V. According to Soundness and Judgment



Depending on soundness and judgment, hadiths, in fact ahad hadiths, are classified into three groups: sahih, hasan and da'if.

These are the hadiths that are not shadhdh (irregular) or mu'allal (defective) and are reported by just and trustworthy narrators with a muttasil sanad. If a sahih hadith has all those characteristics to the highest degree, it is called sahih li zatihi. Mutlaq (definitely) sahih is the same as sahih li zatihi.

Hadiths that do not have these characteristics of reliability to the highest degree, but are taken to a degree of reliability by another narration are called sahih li gayrihi.

Scholars of hadiths categorize hadiths into seven grades:

a. Those which are transmitted by both al-Bukhari and Muslim. They are also called muttafakun alayh. The number of hadiths of this kind in the book el-Lu'lu'u ve'l-mercân by M. Fuad Abdülbâkî is 1,906.

b. those which are transmitted by al-Bukhari only;

c. those which are transmitted by Muslim only;

d. those which are not found in either of these two collections, but agree with the requirements of both al-Bukhari and Muslim;

e. those which agree with the requirements of al-Bukhari only;

f. those which agree with the requirements of Muslim only;

and

g. those declared to be sahih by other hadith scholars.

According to soundness, the second category of hadiths is hasan hadiths. These are the hadiths that not shadhdh or mu'allal, and which are reported by not perfectly precise narrators with muttasil sanads. This kind of hadith is called hasan lizatih and ranks with the grade of sahih li gayrih if its words are reinforced by another hadith.

The hadith is called hasan li gayrih if it is reinforced in meaning or words by other hadiths whose narrators have not been accused of deception or who are not forgetful and make a lot of mistakes, but their competence is not obvious (mastur narrators).

Hadiths that do not meet the above-mentioned requirements of sahih or hasan hadiths are "da'if." The weakness of a hadith stems from one of two reasons:

1) inqita' (discontinuity) in the sanad,

2) or the narrator having a disparaged character.

Inqita' means that there is at least one missing link in the sanad. If there is such an inqita', this inqita' necessitates the rejection of the text, even if all other narrators are siqa'. Because of inqita, da'if hadiths are mursal (hurried), munqati‘ (broken), mu'dal (unclear), mu'allaq (hanging), or mudallas (concealed).

Mursal hadiths are those quoted by one of the following generation directly in the name of the Prophet without the name of any of the Companions being mentioned.

Munqati‘ hadiths are those whose sanad is not muttasil. Hadiths which have one or more than one narrators missing, but not successively, in the sanad are called munqati.

Mu‘dal hadiths are those in which two or more narrators are missing successively in the sanad. This kind of hadiths is weaker than munqati hadiths.

Mu‘allaq hadiths are those in which one or more than one narrators are not known at the beginning of the sanad or none of the narrators are known up to the muntaha of the hadith. Narrations that are included in recent hadith books intended particularly for the general public and cited with the sole mention of a Companion are all mu'allaq. However, they do not lose their reliability because their sanads are muttasil in the original sources.

Tadlis (concealing) refers to a sanad where a narrator is concealed as if there was no such a person. The hadith narrated with tadlis is called mudallas. There are three types of tadlis:

tadlis al-isnad. A narrator reports from a contemporary whom he did not meet or met but did not hear the hadith from, in such a way as to create the impression that he heard the hadith in person.
tadlis al-shuyukh. The narrator does mention the one he transmitted from by name, but uses a less well-known name, by-name, or nickname.
tadlis al-taswiyyah. A hadith is narrated as if all its narrators are siqa', and the intermediate weak authority is omitted.
Da'if hadiths due, to the disparaged character of the narrator, are categorized into 10 types: Maudu', matruk, munkar, mu'allal, mudraj, makloob, mudtarib, shazz, musahhaf and muharraf.

Maudu‘ is a hadith whose narrator has been accused of telling lies in relating hadith.

A matruk or matruh is a hadith whose narrator is accused of falsehood and being alone in this narration. It is also defined as a hadith transmitted by only one narrator who has been accused of deception, falsehood, fisq (departure from the path of Islam) and negligence, although it is not contrary to any narration of trustworthy narrators.

There are different views on the description of munkar hadith, but there are two main views:

a. A hadith that has a narrator, although weak that contradicts the narration of trustworthy narrators.

b. A hadith that has only one narrator, whether he is trustworthy or not.

Mu'allal or ma‘lul are hadiths that are ostensibly sahih but have a concealed defect that detracts from its soundness. The hadith scholar who discovers this defect is called mu'allil.

The mentioning of a remark that does not belong to a hadith is called idraj and a hadith that is subject to such a practice is called mudraj. This means that words of a narrator have become confused with the words of the Prophet. Idraj can be placed in the sanad or matn.

Maqlub is a hadith in which the names of the narrators in the sanad or some words in the matn are transposed.

Mudtarib is a hadith that, although having more than one narration, there is no reason for preferring one over the others. Izdirab generally takes place in isnad or sometimes in matn.

Shazz is the narration of a trustworthy narrator that contradicts those of more trustworthy narrators. The narration of the more trustworthy narrator is called mahfuz. It can be placed in the sanad or matn.

Musahhaf is a hadith in which the words are wrongly placed. This kind of mistake generally occurs while written documents are being copied.

Muharraf is a hadith in which the diacritical marks are wrongly placed.




Cont...




عاشقة الأمل
مشرف

عدد الرسائل : 51
العمر : 31
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/07/2008

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: HADITH AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF HADITH

مُساهمة من طرف عاشقة الأمل في الخميس سبتمبر 04, 2008 2:54 am

V. According to Contradiction



Depending on contradiction, maqbul hadiths (sahih and hasan) can be categorized into two groups: muhkam (perfect) and muhtalif (disputed).

Muhkam is an accepted hadith that has not been contradicted by another.

Muhtalif is a maqbul hadith that is contradicted by another maqbul hadith. If the contradicting hadith is not maqbul, it means that there is no contradiction.

If the muhtalif hadith can be removed from the contradiction easily, in other words, if these two hadiths can be combined and compromised, it is understood that there is no contradiction between them and both of the hadiths become muhkam.





Done





عاشقة الأمل
مشرف

عدد الرسائل : 51
العمر : 31
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/07/2008

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة

- مواضيع مماثلة

 
صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:
لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى